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Cock, J. 2005. „Engendering Gay and Lesbian Rights: the Equality Clause in the South African Constitution‟, in Hoad, N., Martin, K. & Reid, G. (eds.), Sex and Politics in South Africa, 2005. Double Story Books.

 

Crawball, N. 2005. „Balancing Freedom and Fear: Gay Men, Sex and HIV in the Post-apartheid Era‟, in Steyn, M. & Van Zyl, M. (ed.), 2005. Performing Queer: Shaping Sexualities 1994-2004. Kwela Books.

 

Croucher, S. (2002). South Africa’s democratisation and the politics of gay liberation. Journal of Southern African Studies, 28(2), 315-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057070220140720

 

Donham, E. L. 1998. „Freeing South Africa: The “Modernisation” of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto‟, in Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Feb., 1998), pp. 3-21. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association

 

Elder, G. S. 2005. „Somewhere, over the Rainbow: Cape Town, South Africa, as a “Gay Destination”‟, in Ouzgane, L & Morrell, R. (eds.), African Masculinities. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

 

Hoad, N. 1999. „Between the White Man‟s Burden and the White Man‟s Disease: Tracking Lesbian and Gay Human Rights in Southern Africa‟. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5(4): 559-584. doi: 10.1215/10642684-5-4-559

 

Howard, R. 1998. „Review‟: [untitled], Reviewed Work(s): Human Rights and Homosexuality in Southern Africa by Chris Dunton; Mai Palmberg; Beset by Contradictions: Islamization, Legal Reform and Human Rights in Sudan by Lawyers‟ committee for Human Rights, in African Studies Review, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Apr., 1998), pp. 190-192. Published by: African Studies Association

 

Isaac, G., & McKendrick, B. 1992. Male Homosexuality in South Africa: Identity Formation, Culture, and Crisis. Oxford University Press Cape Town.

 

Long, S. 2003. More than a Name: State-Sponsored Homophobia and Its Consequences in Southern Africa. Human Rights Watch and the International Gay and Lesbian Rights Commission

 

Nel, J. 2005. „Moving from Rhetoric to Creating the Reality: Empowering South Africa‟s Lesbian and Gay Community‟, in Van Zyl, M. & Steyn, M. (ed.), Performing Queer: Shaping Sexualities 1994-2004. Kwela Books.

 

Nkoli, S. 1994. „Wardrobes: Coming Out as a Black Gay Activist in South Africa‟, in Gevisser, M. & Cameron, E. (ed.), Defiant Desire, 1994. Pavan Books – Johannesburg.

 

Reddy, V. 2009. „Queer Marriages: Sexualising Citizenship and the Development of Freedoms in South Africa‟, in Steyn, M. & Van Zyl, M. (ed.), 2009. The Prize and the Price: Shaping Sexualities in South Africa. Human Science Research Council Press, Cape Town, South Africa.

 

Rydström, J. 2005. „Solidarity – with Whom? The International Gay & Lesbian Rights Movement and Apartheid‟, in Hoad, N., Martin, K., & Reid, G. (eds.), Sex and Politics in South Africa, 2005. Double Story Books

 

Sanders, A. J. G. M. (1997). Homosexuality and the law: a gay revolution in South Africa?. Journal of African Law, 41(01), 100-108. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021855300010007

 

 

Sinclair, R. 2007. The Official Treatment of White, South African, Homosexual Men and the Consequent Reaction of Gay Liberation from the 1960s to 2000, unpublished thesis, University of Johannesburg. Access: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/163

 

Stychin, C. 1996. „The Struggle for Sexual Orientation in the South African Bill of Rights‟, in Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 23, No. 4. pp. 255-283. DOI: 10.2307/1410476

 

Tatchell, P. 2005. The Moment the ANC Embraced Gay Rights, in Hoad, N., Martin, K,. & Reid, G. (eds.), Sex and Politics in South Africa, 2005. Double Story Books.

 

Berman, K. (1993). Lesbians in South Africa: challenging the invisibility. In M. Krouse, & K. Berman (Eds.), The Invisible ghetto: Lesbian and gay writing from South Africa (pp. xviixxi). Johannesburg: COSAW

 

Butler, A. H. (2007). Navigating institutional homophobia: A challenge for South African social work with gay and lesbian youth. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 19(1), 71-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J041v19n01_05

 

Chetty, D. (1994). A drag at Madame Costello’s: Cape moffie life and the popular press in the 1950s and 1960s. In M. Gevisser, & E. Cameron (Eds.), Defiant desire: Gay and lesbian lives in South Africa (pp. 115-127). Johannesburg: Ravan

 

Christiansen, E.C. (2000). Ending the Apartheid of the closet: Sexual orientation in the South African constitutional process. NYU Journal of International Politics, 997, 1-36.

 

Croucher, S. (2002). South Africa’s democratisation and the politics of gay liberation. Journal of Southern African Studies, 28(2), 315-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057070220140720

 

Graziano, K. J. (2004a). Oppression and resiliency in a post-apartheid South Africa: Unheard voices of black gay men and lesbians. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 302-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.3.302

 

Graziano, K. J. (2004b). Coming out on a South African university campus: Adaptations of gay men and lesbians. Society in Transition, 35(2), 273-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21528586.2004.10419119

 

Hames, M. (2007). Sexual identity and transformation at a South African university. Social Dynamics, 33(1), 52-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02533950708628743

 

Lewis, J., & Loots, F. (1994). “Moffies en manvroue”: Gay and lesbian life histories in

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Swarr, A. L., & Nagar, R. (2003). Dismantling assumptions: Interrogating “lesbian” struggles for survival in India and South Africa. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 29(2), 491-516. DOI: 10.1086/378573

 

Tsampiras, C., ‘Not So “Gay” After All: Constructing (Homo)sexuality in AIDS Research in the South African Medical Journal, 1980 – 1990’, South African Historical Journal, 60, 3, September 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02582470802417532

 

Cameron, E. (1994). Unapprehended felons: Gays and lesbians and the law in South Africa. In M. Gevisser & E. Cameron (Eds.), Defiant desire: Gay and lesbian lives in South Africa (pp. 89-98). Johannesburg: Raven.

 

De Vos, P. (2000). Sexual orientation and the right to equality in the South African constitution. South African Law Journal, 117(1), 17-42.

 

Elder, G. (1995). Of moffies, kaffirs and perverts: Male homosexuality and the discourse of moral order in the apartheid state. In D. Bell & G. Valentine (Eds.), Mapping desire: Geographies of sexualities (pp. 56-64). London: Routledge.

 

Kaplan, R. M. (2004). Treatment of homosexuality during apartheid: More investigation is needed into the shameful way homosexuality was treated. British Medical Journal, 329(7480), 1415- 1416. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1415

 

Massoud, M. F. (2003). The evolution of gay rights in South Africa. Peace Review, 15(3), 301-307. DOI:

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Nkosi, S. (2005, 17 December). Traditional leaders do not support gay union. City Press. Retrieved July 12, 2009 from http://www.citypress.co.za/MyCityPress/Letters/Traditional-leaders-donot-support-gay-union-20100614.

 

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Botha, M. P. (2008). Homosexuality ond South African cinema. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from http://www.kinema.uwaterloo.ca/article.php ?id=129&feature

 

De Bruin, K., & Arndt, M. (2010). Attitudes toward bisexual men and women in a university context : Relations with race, gender, knowing a bisexual man or woman and sexual orientation. Journal of Bisexuality, 10(3), 233-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2010.500955

 

Graziano KJ . (2004). Oppression and resiliency in a post-apartheid South Africa : Unheard voices of Black gay men and lesbians. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 302-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.3.302

 

Nel, J. A. & Judge, M . (2008). Exploring homophobic victimisation in Gauteng, South Africa : Issues, impacts and responses. Acta Criminologica, 21(3), 19-36.

 

Polders, L. A., Nel, J. A, Kruger, P., & Wells, H. l. (2008). Factors affecting vulnerability to depression among gay men and lesbian women in Gauteng, South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 673-687. doi: 10.1177/008124630803800407

 

Potgieter, C-A. (2006). The imagined future for gays and lesbians in South Africa: Is this it? Agenda, 67, 4-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10130950.2006.9674692

 

Reddy, V., Potgieter, C-A., & Mkhize, N. (2007). Cloud over the rainbow nation: ‘Corrective rape’ and other hate crimes against black lesbians. HSRC Review, 5(1), 10-11. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/6153

 

Stephens, A. V. (2010). An explaratian of hate crime and homophobia in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal: A research report commissioned by the Gay and Lesbian Netwark. Pietermaritzburg: Gay & Lesbian Network.

 

Gibson, A., & Macleod, C. (2012). (Dis)allowances of lesbians’ sexual identities: Lesbian identity construction in racialised, classed, familial, and institutional spaces. Feminism & Psychology, 22(4), 462-481. doi: 10.1177/0959353512459580

 

Hames, M. (2007). Sexual identity and transformation at a South African university. Social Dynamics, 33(1), 52-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02533950708628743

 

Msibi, T. 2012b. ‘I’m used to it now’: experiences of homophobia among queer youths in South African township schools. Gender and Education, 24, 5, pp. 515-533, DOI: 10.1080/09540253.2011.64502

 

Msibi, T. 2013. Queering the transformation of higher education in South Africa. Perspectives in education. 31, 2, pp. 65-73, viewed 18 March 2015, from http://reference.sabinet.co.za/sa_epublication_article/persed_v31_n2_a8

 

Vincent, L. & Howell, S. 2014. ‘Unnatural’, ‘Un-African’ and ‘Ungodly’: Homophobic discourse in democratic South Africa. Sexualities, 17, 4, pp. 472–483.

 

Wells, H. & Polders, L. A. 2004. Hate crimes against gay and lesbian people in Gauteng: prevalence, consequences and contributing factors. Research initiative of the Joint Working Group conducted by OUT LGBT Well-being in collaboration with the UNISA Centre for Applied Psychology, viewed 25 February 2015, from http://www.out.org.za/index.php/library/reports?download=22:hate-crimes-research-findings

 

De Vos, P., 1996. „On the Legal Construction of Gay and Lesbian Identity and South Africa‟s Transitional Constitution‟, Human Rights. Vol.12, pp. 256-289.

 

Dunton, C. & Palmberg, M. 1996. „Human rights and homosexuality in Southern Africa‟. Current African Issues. Vol. 19, June 1996.

 

Hoad, N. 1998. „Tradition, Modernity and Human Rights: An Interrogation of Contemporary Gay and Lesbian Rights Claims in Southern African Nationalist Discourses‟. Development Update. Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 32-43.

 

Louw, R. 2008. „Advancing Human Rights through Constitutional Protection for Gays and Lesbians in South Africa‟, Journal of Homosexuality, vol.48, no.3, pp. 141-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v48n03_08

 

Mbisi, T. 2011. „The Lies We Have been Told: On (Homo) Sexuality in Africa‟. Africa Today. Vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 55-77.

 

Morrissey, M. E. 2013. Rape as a Weapon of Hate: Discursive Constructions and Material Consequences of Black Lesbianism in South Africa. Women’s Studies in Communication. Vol. 36, pp. 72–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07491409.2013.755450

 

Muholi, Z. 2009. “Mapping Our Histories: A Visual History of Black Lesbians in PostApartheid South Africa.” Retrieved from http://www.socialresilience.ch/fileadmin/afrikakomp/redaktion/Dokumente/Veranstaltungen_ 2013/ZM_moh_final_230609.pdf on 31 August 2012

 

Reid, G. 2006. „How to Become a “Real Gay”: Identity and Terminology in Ermelo, Mpumalanga‟. Agenda, vol. 67, no. 13, pp. 137–145.

 

Reid, G., & Dirsuweit, T. (2002). Understanding systemic violence: Homophobic attacks in Johannesburg and its surrounds. In Urban Forum (Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 99-126). http://www.africabib.org/htp.php?RID=251827313

 

Smuts, L. 2011. Coming Out as a Lesbian in Johannesburg, South Africa: Considering Intersecting Identities and Social Spaces‟, South African Review of Sociology, vol.42, no.3, pp. 23-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21528586.2011.621231

 

Spruill, J.H. 2000. A Post- With/Out a Past? Sexual Orientation and the Post-Colonial „Moment‟ in South Africa, in: Carl Stychin and Didi Herman, eds. Sexuality in the Legal Arena. London: The Athlone Press, pp. 3-16

 

Thorenson, R. 2008. Somewhere over the rainbow nation: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual activism in South Africa‟. Journal of South African Studies. Vol. 34, pp. 679–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057070802259969

 

Donham, D. L. (2005). Freeing South Africa: The “Modernization” of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto. In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same-sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp. 33 – 47). Oxford: Blackwell.

 

Mclean, N & Ngcobo, L. (1994). Abingibhamayo bathi ngimnandi (Those who fuck me say I’m tasty): Gay sexuality in Reef townships. In M. Gevisser & E. Cameron (Eds.), Defiant Desire (pp.158 – 185). Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

 

Robinson, J.A. & Swanepoel, J. (2004). Same-sex marriage in South Africa: the road ahead. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 1, 1 – 21.

 

Williams, K. (2004). ‘I do” or “We won’t”: Legalising same-sex marriage in South Africa. South African Journal of Human Rights, 20 (1), 32 – 63.

 

Butler, A.H. Alpaslan , A.H. Strümpher, J. & Astbury, G. 2003. “Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education”. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education. 1(2), pp.3-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J367v01n02_02